Trade Show Schedule 2017

Please plan to visit Masaba at any or all of the following trade shows and conferences.

Dakota Farm Show

Dates: January 4-6

Location: Vermillion, SD

Missouri Mine Safety and Health Conference

Dates: January 11 – 13

Location: Osage Beach, MO

ILPA

Dates: February 22 – 23

Location: Coralville, IA

GEAPS Exchange 2017

Dates: February 25 – 28

Location: Kansas City, MO

Booth #1209

CONEXPO/CONAGG 2017

Dates: March 7 – 11

Location: Las Vegas, NV

Booth #S5833

SME Minnesota

Dates: April 17 – 19

Location: Duluth, MN

 

2016 Trade Show Schedule

Please plan to stop by the Masaba booth at any of the following trade shows!

ILPA

Dates: February 24 – 26
Location: Coralville, IA

GEAPS Exchange 2016

Booth #: 2576
Dates: February 28 – March 1
Location: Austin, TX

AGG1/World of Asphalt

Booth #: 1242
Dates: March 20 – 23
Location: Nashville, TN

Central Plains Dairy Expo

Booth #: 366
Dates: March 29 – 31
Location: Sioux Falls, SD

SME Duluth

Booth #: 65
Dates: April 11 – 13
Location: Duluth, MN

MINExpo 2016

Booth #: 25551
Dates: September 26 – 28
Location: Las Vegas, NV

MLPA

Booth #: 6

Dates: November 30 – December 2

Location: Osage Beach, MO

CONEXPO 2017

Booth #: S5833

Dates: March 7 – 11, 2017

Location: Las Vegas, NV

MASABA Invests in Local Welder

20150731_101431

A Vermillion man will get a jump start on his career thanks to the Build Dakota Scholarship program and the willingness of a Vermillion company to invest in the education of its future skilled workforce.

 

MASABA, a manufacturer of bulk handling equipment for the mining, aggregate, and agriculture industries, is partnering with Build Dakota and Mitchell Technical Institute (MTI) to address its projected need for welders through participation in MTI’s Double Edge program.  The Double Edge is a hybrid of the Build Dakota and MTI’s Workforce Recruitment Program (WRP).  Under the program, a student’s education is jointly funded by Build Dakota and the sponsoring company.  The student must maintain an academic standard to remain eligible, and commit three years of post-grad service to the company.

 

Lofton Covington will enroll in MTI’s Welding & Manufacturing Technology program this fall.  It is one of thirteen MTI courses of study that are designated as high-need workforce programs by the Build Dakota Scholarship board, and students entering those fields are eligible to apply for funding under the program.  Covington is a 2015 graduate of Vermillion High School.

 

“The rigors of the industries we serve, and the varied and high-tech nature of our manufacturing processes require that we have a highly-skilled workforce to meet the demands of our customers,” said Jerad Higman, president of MASABA.  “In a tight labor market, quality people are hard to come by, so when the Double Edge opportunity presented itself, it was an easy decision to make this investment in Lofton and in our company”.

 

Build Dakota was created earlier this year out of a $25 million gift to South Dakota’s four technical institutes by philanthropist T. Denny Sanford.  Over the first five years of the program, the equivalent of approximately 1,200 full-ride scholarships will be awarded to qualifying students in eligible academic programs.  The state of South Dakota matched the Sanford gift, and those funds were placed in an endowment, which will continue to fund the Build Dakota program after the initial funds are invested in South Dakota’s future technical workforce.

 

Because of the existence of the WRP program at MTI – a program under which a company funds a portion of a student’s education for a post-grad commitment of employment with the company – the mechanism was in place for the creation of the Double Edge program.  The outcome is that more students will benefit from the Build Dakota dollars, while participating companies gain the assurance of trained talent when the student graduates.

 

“MTI’s Double Edge and WRP are exciting programs for our students and employers.  Participating in these programs will better position both the employer and the students for future opportunities”, stated Rita Nelson, Workforce Development Coordinator with Yankton Area Progressive Growth. “The sponsoring company plays an active role in mentoring, educating and building their qualified workforce.  The student receives more than a valuable scholarship for an excellent education, they build a mentorship relationship and career opportunities.  We are extremely grateful to MTI and MASABA for working together to amplify the impact of the Build Dakota Scholarship.  This innovative partnership creates a highly-trained workforce ready to grow our regional economy and adapt for the future.”

 

According to Mark Gerhardt, MTI’s Vice President of Industry Relations, “in the five-year existence of the WRP program, we’ve had over 20 companies in seven different industries sponsor dozens of students who are now employed by those companies. Once the pipeline of talent starts to flow, the enthusiasm for the WRP grows, and most companies increase their level of participation.  The rate of growth should be even greater with the Double Edge.”

 

In addition to participating in the Double Edge program, MASABA has contracted with MTI’s Corporate Education Division to provide non-credit training for existing employees in the areas of advanced welding and manufacturing economics.

The Future of Frac Sand Industry

With the current drop in oil prices, there are expected changes in the frac sand industry. But just how will the drop of oil affect the industry?  Like any situation, there is the optimist and doubtful.

Photo Courtesy from Spring Grove Herald

Photo Courtesy from Spring Grove Herald

While reviewing the largest area of the fracking sand industry of Wisconsin, we know that there is room for growth. Currently, there are plans to continue to move forward according to Journal Interactive, but Wisconsin’s fracking sand industry is aware that with the drop of oil prices things may slow down, but won’t come to a complete halt.  An article from The Cap Times, with a statement from Rick Shearer states,

“We certainly expect things will be softer in 2015 than they were last year,” says Rick Shearer, CEO of Emerge Energy Services LP of Fort Worth, Texas, which employs around 350 people in Wisconsin and has invested over $100 million in major facilities in Barron County in the northwestern part of the state.

While there is a change in the amount of production that will happen in the industry, there is no need to be worried about the industry to come to a complete freeze or job loss at this point in time. With such a high demand in 2013 with oil prices at an all-time high and an increase of 30 percent from its recent years with fracking, it is hard to reproduce the same high numbers from the previous year.  While the frac sand industry is trying to reproduce high numbers, the oil industry numbers continue to drop. With such a large decrease in pricing for the oil industry there may be a dramatic decrease in the necessity for sand use, but just how much of decrease can we predict? A statement from Ethan Bellamy, a managing director and senior energy industry analyst for Milwaukee-based Robert W. Baird & Co. says,

“Public sand companies are unlikely to be totally immune, but we suspect they will survive the downturn at the expense of mom-and-pop operators who are likely to be squeezed out as demand dwindles,” Bellamy said. “Idled capacity and layoffs would not surprise us at all, and we think greenfield mines and mine expansions don’t make much sense unless and until oil recovers.”

According to Samir Nangia, a principal at PacWest Consulting Partners, “Even though things look grim right now, it seems like the outlook for the sand guys could be a little bit better than it is for (other oil industry operators).” Only time will tell the true effect that will happen to the frac sand industry.

Kolman, A Division of Masaba

Formed in the late 1940’s, Kolman was started to provide engineering services and equipment to the bulk material handling industry. Initially specializing in small screen plants and conveyors, Kolman enjoyed success for several decades supplying solutions for handling various types of bulk material.

Kolman logo new

In December of 1996, Kolman was acquired by The Conveyor Company (CONVEYCO), headquartered in Sibley, Iowa. As a division of The Conveyor Company, Kolman’s product line expanded to include a full line of conveying systems. Overland conveyors, jump conveyors, stackers, and telescoping stackers are just a few examples of popular Kolman solutions.100_0018

100_0054 adjusted

109_0989

Then, in November of 2008, Masaba acquired the Kolman brand and all Kolman intellectual property. Today, Masaba proudly manufactures Kolman screens. Popular screen sizes include 4’x8′ and 4’x10′. Masaba continues to supply new Kolman equipment along with parts for previously existing Kolman machinery.

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K1-1060 FLYWHEEL

K1-1060 DECK VIEW

Understanding Conveyor Belt Scales

All information and photos courtesy of our friends at Weigh Shark.

Understanding The Belt Scale System

An Overview Of:

  • Components of a scale
  • Types of scales
  • Calibration and installation of scales

Components Of A Scale

3 Main Components

1. Control Box

control box

2a. Speed Sensor

speed sensor

2b. Shaft Encoder

shaft encoder

3. Weighbridge

troughing idler scale

Types of Weighbridges

Channel Insert Scale

channel insert scale

 

Wing Idler Scale

wing idler scale

 

 

 

 

 

 

Troughing Idler Scale

troughing idler scale

 

 

 

 

 

 

HD Troughing Idler Scale

hd troughing idler scale

 

 

 

 

 

 

Installation Of A Scale

  1. Select an Existing Idler location & Remove Idler
  2. Mount Weighbridges to Conveyor Frame
  3. Mount Idler on Scale Weighbridges
  4. String Line Idlers before and after & Shim if required
  5. Bolt Speed Sensor to a Different Idler or Mount Magnetic Encoder on Head Pulley or Tail Pulley
  6. Mount Integrator on Conveyor Frame near scale
  7. Run Wires From Load Cells & Speed Sensor to Integrator
  8. Provide Power Source (110/220VAC or 12/24 VDC)

Calibration of Scale

Using the graphical display provided with most belt scales

Step 1: ZERO TEST

  • One Revolution with Belt Running Empty

Step 2: SPAN TEST

  1. Enter in Idler span distance
  2. Enter in Calibration Weight Value for the Weights you will be installing
  3. Install weights and Perform SPAN TEST

Basic Scale Information Required to Size a Scale for a Conveyor

  • Type of Idler: CEMA, Wing, or Channel Insert
  • Maximum and Minimum Tons Per Hour (TPH) Expected
  • Belt Speed in Feet Per Minute (FPM)
  • Belt Width & Length of Conveyor
  • Idler Center Distance

Conveyors 101

Conveying Equipment and Stackers

Components

Belting

1)    Belt widths are typically 24” 30” 36” 42” 48” 54” 60” and 72”

  1. 24”: up to 300 tph
  2. 30”: up to 500 tph
  3. 36”: up to 1,000 tph
  4. 42”: up to 1200 tph
  5. 48”: up to 1800 tph
  6. 54”: up to 2200 tph
  7. 60″ and 72″: 2200 tph and up
  8. These can change depending on material weight and size, incline, belt speed, feet per minute (FPM), etc. The parameters provided are just a guide.

2)    Belting Selection

  1. Belting has top cover (carry side) which is the 1st # and a bottom cover 2nd #. Also has plys which are the fabric in the middle of the belting.
  2. The longer the conveyor the more plys you need. Plys keep the top and bottom covers from separating.
  3. Heavier top covers are needed for high impact i.e. under a primary crusher long drop at feed area or very abrasive material (High Silica). Heavy covers have nothing to do with long belts.

belting layers and description

For Example:

  • Belting – 36” 3-ply 3/16” x 1/16” conveyor belt

OR

  • Belting –36” US Flex I – 1/4″x1/8″ Conveyor Belting

 

Idlers

All Idlers have a CEMA RATING (Conveyor Equipment Manufacturing Association)

  1. The smallest is CEMA B which is rated for 30,000 hours of operation based on 500 rpm of the roller cans. They also have the smallest shaft and bearing; thinnest shell on the cans and the smallest gauged steel frame. These are used in finished product and very low TPH 300 TPH and below. Used in applications such as Peat Moss, salt, wood chips, sand, and glass recycling.
  2. CEMA C is the most common in the aggregate industry. It is the next size up from CEMA B. Tonnages to consider are from 300 TPH up to 1,000. Used in applications such as Sand & Gravel, Light duty mining,  and Portable aggregate equipment.
  3. CEMA D is next and is used on higher tonnage operations such as Heavy Aggregate, Mining, and Rail Loading.
  4. CEMA E & F are more for mining of precious metals and coal
How to choose the right idlers:

Again, it is based on tonnage but also width of conveyor. Remember, the higher the CEMA rating, the wider the bearing and shaft are. If you are using a 42” or wider belt with primary run material, CEMA D idlers might be needed.

Idlers have sealed bearings and regreaseable bearings. Regreaseable bearing have been used for many years, but today’s seal technology makes sealed bearings much more economical and longer lasting.

  1. There are two styles of bearings Roller Bearings (which are most common) and tapered which are in regreasable or high impact areas. Rollers are used for speed and tapered are more for impact.
  2. Impact idlers. These are used in high impact areas located at the tail receiving area. Never use CEMA B in this application. These need to be spec’d for under a primary crusher or under a top over chute on a scalping screen or any long drops (Black Idler Below Figure 3a.).
  3. Also can use an impact bed but this is for very extreme impact  i.e. rip rap
  4. Self-aligning idlers for  200’ or longer or high FPM should be mounted on the carry side (top) and the return side (bottom) every 100’ There are many styles and do not align the belt but protect it.

 

Pulleys

Head pulley - Copy

There are many different types of pulley; a basic conveyor configuration would consist of a head and a tail pulley.  In more complex configurations where more torque is needed, conveyors use what is called a wrap drives. Also some conveyors use gravity take ups to help tension the belt, as seen in the picture below.

  1. The head is located at the head end and usually is the drive. These types of pulleys will have lagging on them which usually is a 3/8” Herringbone lagging. Herring bone is lagging with the grooves etched in it. There are other types of lagging such as Diamond legging, ceramic legging, weld on, cold bond, and will discuss as needed.
  2. Conveyors will always have a wing pulley on the tail. Wing pulleys are not drum style and allow rocks and other material to be flung out to the side, thus protecting the conveyor belt
  3. Gravity take ups  use pulleys as well; these pulleys can also have lagging.
  4. All pulleys must have a shaft, which most of our competitors will standardize, where Masaba allows input from the customer if they require bigger shaft sizes i.e. 4 15/16” shafts are a more heavy duty style.
  5. All pulleys have a wall thickness; Masaba uses a 3/8” wall thickness as a standard, where most of our competitors have a ¼”.

pulley without lagging

Conveyor Types

Masaba offers several different types of conveyors. A few examples and brief descriptions are given below.

36” X 80’ Portable Self Contained Stacker

36x80 Portable Self Contained Stacker

This conveyor is Road Portable, due to the head fold, and fifth wheel hook up.  It also includes brakes. Notice Portable in the title, meaning Road Legal.  Self Contained meaning diesel powered, run on a diesel generator.

 

30” X 80’ Pit Portable Stacker

30x80 Pit Portable Stacker 1

This conveyor is Pit Portable, because there is no fold in the conveyor, or brakes. Notice Pit Portable in the title, meaning it is Not Road Legal, but the user is still able to move it around the pit

 

36” X 100’ Pontoon Transfer Conveyor

36x100 Pontoon Transfer Conveyor

This conveyor is Pit Portable; these units would usually come up on a flat bed truck, and would have to be assembled.  These conveyors are used to convey materials over water, i.e.  Helping dredging machines convey material back to land.

 

48” X 125’ Stationary Transfer Conveyor

48x125 Stationary Transfer Conveyor

Stationary conveyor meaning, it does not radial, it does not raise and lower.  These conveyors are in fixed positions and need to be assembled on site.

Masaba Conveyors:

Why should someone be interested in a MASABA conveyor?  Aren’t they all the same, like a commodity?  What makes a MASABA conveyor a better value?

Masaba Conveyor Features:
  1. Better Drive Components
  2. Stronger Lattice Section
  3. Idlers
  4. Customization
  5. Longer Life by Design
  6. Higher Resale Value
Better Drive Components

MASABA tends to have larger head and tail shaft sizes, however with larger shafts come larger bearings. MASABA uses two row tapered roller bearings where many others use single row ball bearings.  Two row-tapered roller bearings are known to have a lifetime of 20 to 30 years lifetime with proper maintenance.

MASABA utilizes Dodge reducers and our conveyors are usually built with a larger gearbox than our competitors. Larger boxes last longer as they are built from larger, stronger internal components. A correctly sized and properly maintained gearbox should last 20 to 30 years.

Masaba also uses WEG Motors, as do many our competitors, but is important to compare horse powers when comparing apples to apples.

Stronger Lattice Section

MASABA chord angles range from, 3” x 3” x 1/4″ angle iron. Many competitive units are constructed with the same size chord angles, some with smaller. MASABA adds two additional full length angle irons under the bottom chord angles. These angles are the under rails and constructed from 3” x 4” x 5/16” angle iron. Therefore, a competitive unit with the same size chord angles has over 50% less steel in this critical area. Typically, if the lattice section becomes damaged or it’s strength is somehow compromised the conveyor may well be scraped. Other components such as idlers, bearings, belts are mechanically fastened and upgrading at time of replacement is an option. We believe the lattice section is essentially the back bone of the conveyor, which determines the overall structural rigidity.  Since all of our conveyors are jig welded, you know they are straight & true!

At MASABA, a 60’ conveyor will actually measure about 64’. The lattice section is constructed to measure 60’ long. The extra length comes from the addition of the head and tail sections to the lattice section. Most other companies measure their units from center of head roller to center of tail roller.  A MASABA conveyor will typically have 3 to 4 feet more lattice section, 6 to 8 feet more belt and an additional troughing idler.

Customization

At MASABA we like to work with our customers on their specs, to make sure the conveyor is built to their expectations.  Where many manufacturers have the “cookie cutter” piece of equipment, we go through everything with the customer, as far as shaft sizes, length, idler selection, pulleys, hopper, motor, hydraulic fold, hydraulic Raise and Lower, radial travel and gear box size.  We like to sit down with our customers and go through all these specs to ensure we have met their needs.

 Longer Life by Design
  1. FACT: 5 year structural, 2 year components Warranty
  2. FACT: The low-end conveyors on the market today are designed to last one to three seasons prior to major component failure.
  3. FACT: The mid-range conveyors on the market today are designed to last five to ten years prior to major component failure.
  4. FACT: MASABA conveyors are intended by design to last 15 to 25 years prior to requiring major parts replacement.
Higher Resale Value
  1. MASABA has worked hard to establish and maintain a quality name in the industry. Everyone working at MASABA strives to make sure that every piece of equipment is built “MASABA Tough” and with the quality our customers have come to expect and deserve.
  2. Because of this, we have seen used equipment sell for more than what it sold for new! We feel that resale value is something potential customers should take a serious look at when purchasing equipment.

 

 

magnum logo

COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

  • Standard Equipment
    • 1000 TPH Capacity
    • Cema C Idlers
    • 3-Ply Belting
    • Vulcanized splice
  • Masaba patented Track Technology – Safer more reliable; Hydraulic Holding valve to prevent roll back of stinger in case of hydraulic failure.

Magnum Drawing

 

  • No hydraulic or electrical line failure to worry about on stinger with Track Technology. Electrical lines on Festoon System behind stinger and protected from material build up
  • No winch system. Winch systems add weight to stinger and create added up and down forces on both the main and stinger trusses.
  • PLC
  1. User friendly. Has good operator functions; can track radial travel in manual mode to set proper radial arc for automation mode; creates more stockpile volume in stockpile due to set windrow programming. Stinger retracts half the distance than it extends during each row, this allows material to stockpile between windrows allowing for more stockpile volume and better desegregation.
  2. Large Touch screen
  3. All Nema Components
  4. At end of radial arc the PLC is pre programmed to begin slowing down to a gradual stop in lieu of a sudden stop, When a telescoping conveyor comes to a sudden stop, this creates a “whipping effect” on the stinger and puts stress on both the stinger and main frames.
  • As stinger extends radial speed slows down to allow for higher stockpile on back side (away from axle) instead of front side closest to the axle
  • Outside set of wheels can be offset to provide proper alignment with the pivot point at the tail. This allows for proper radial arc and no scuffing or jumping of tires during radial travel

Stockpile Dimensions

  • Encoder. Radial counter is located at pivot pin under a protective cover to prevent material build up.
  • Hydraulic system has cooler for high temp and heater for cold temp.
  • Stinger belt has a true self-aligning idler in lieu of an upside down troughing idler. Upside down troughing idlers can create belt camber and cause belt misalignment and material spillage
  • Hydraulic System has a 30 hp motor and pump system in lieu of 10 hp. This allows the Masaba Magnum to operate more than one hydraulic function at one time.
  • Counterweight is included, no need to pour a concrete counterweight
  • Includes Hydraulic axle jacks and Honda power unit to set up Magnum without any power hooked up to it. No need for a crane to set it up.
  • Warranty – 5 year structural and 2 year components

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crushing 101

Objective:  The goal in the Aggregate Industry is to process rock, sand and gravel into a saleable product as quickly as possible, (High TPH) as cheaply, (Low cost per ton) as possibly as we can.

Anything that interferes with this should be looked upon as superfluous and removed from the process.

A good example would be track mounted crushing and screening plants. They have their place but are not the wholesale silver bullet some have promoted them to be.

Some deposits can be worked by screening, (sizing) alone with no or very little crushing required. Others are crushing intensive requiring much work starting with drilling and blasting of the stone in the quarry. Consequently, crushing equipment requirements can vary greatly from one location to the next even though the same finished products are being made for the same market. This is apparent locally with the Quartzite quarries around Sioux Falls S.D. versus the local sand and gravel deposits.

There are basically two different styles of crushers utilized in our industry: compression and impact crushers. As their names suggest, compression crushers, (jaws, cones and rolls) reduce the material by squeezing or compressing it until it breaks. Impactors, (HSI and VSI) break the material by either striking it with a fast moving blow bar or by throwing it into a stationary anvil where it breaks upon impact. The choice between compression and impact crushing involves some tradeoffs; either type has its plusses and minuses.

Compression Crushing

Pros

  • Lower wear cost per ton than impacts
  • Less fines production in soft rock
  • Longer intervals between wear part changes
  • More fool-proof than impacts

Cons

  • Smaller reduction ratio than impacts
  • Poor particle shape in some deposits
  • More expensive than an impactor
  • Little to no product beneficiation
Impact Crushing

Pros

  • Less expensive than compression crusher
  • Higher reduction ratio—more production reduction ratio approx. 2 times compression crusher
  • Product beneficiation through particle shape and improved material soundness

Cons

  • Higher wear cost in hard, abrasive materials
  • Excess fines production in soft materials
  • More frequent wear part changes
  • Dust produced during crushing can be an issue
Jaw Crusher

8:1 maximum reduction ratio for compression crushing, this is normally used as a primary crusher. Jaws perform well in many materials. Yields low wear cost per ton in hard abrasive deposits, minimal fines but produces little finished (under 1”) product which places more load on the crushers downstream in the circuit. Many producers refer to jaws as “breakers” meaning that they break the rock down to a size manageable for the secondary crushers. The numbers used in referring to jaw crushers, such as 3042, refer to the opening size at the top of the jaw. The 30 is 30” left to right, the 42 is 42” across the jaw. Allowable top size is approximately 80 percent of the left-right dimension, or in this case, 24”. The width of the jaw determines capacity. Jaw crusher output gradation is controlled by the closed side setting. This is the adjustable opening at the bottom of the jaw. With a 24” top size limit and an 8:1 reduction ration, the closed side setting should be no smaller than 3”. A well designed jaw should be 80 to 85 percent efficient. This means that 80 to 85 tons out of every 100 tons through the jaw will be 3” or smaller, in this case. The balance of the material will be plus 3”-6”.

Jaw-Crusher

Cone Crusher

8:1 maximum reduction ratio for compression crushing and is normally used as a secondary or tertiary crusher. Lower wear cost than imp actors. Good capacity down to around ½”. Production drops off dramatically when producing smaller materials. Even with the new high-speed, high-throw cones. Cones can vary from 60 percent to over 80 percent efficiency. Crusher efficiency has a huge influence on productivity. As an example, let’s compare two cones with 300 tph capacity, one at 60 percent efficient and the other at 80 percent efficient.

1) 300 tph x .6, (60%eff.) = 180 tph of finished product with the cone at full capacity
2) 300 tph x .8 (80% eff.) = 240 tph of finished product with the cone at full capacity

At the end of an 8 hour shift, cone 2 has put 480 more tons of material on the ground. Assuming a $5.00 per ton value = $2,400 more saleable product in one day
=$12,000 more a week
=$48,000 more a month
=$288,000 in six months

This is at $5/ton. Value could easily be doubled depending on what the finished product is. Crusher efficiency is not often discussed during the sales process which is too bad, as it is very important.

Some of the cone nomenclatures are 4’, 4 1/4’, 44”, 45”, 52”, 54”, and 66”. These refer to cone diameter: the larger the cone, the higher the capacity. The foot numbers refer to Symons Machines, the inch designations are most commonly Telsmith and Cedarapids cones. Metso Hp300, Hp400, and Hp500 refer to the horse power connected to the cone. Cedarapids Mvp280, 380, 450 and 550 refer to the cone capacity at 1 ¼” closed side settings. It seems everyone does it a bit different.

The Crushing action of a cone comes from eccentric motion of the shaft or head. There are two basic cone types, bushing or bearing. The bearing cones run cooler and more efficient, thus putting more of the applied Hp to work crushing rock rather than creating heat. The bushing cones require more lubricating oil and larger, more active oil coolers, but are less expensive to build and rebuild. The debate as to which is better has been waged for decades with no end in sight.

The most often replaced components in a cone crusher are the wear liners. The moving portion is called the mantle. The stationary liner it crushes against is called the bowl. Both are made of manganese steel, as are jaw dies. Good quality manganese will harden to 500-550 Brinell hardness. Jaws and cones are somewhat related as a cone could be thought of a jaw tipped on its side and made round. Both derive their crushing action from eccentric motion.

Cone-Crusher

Horizontal shaft impact crusher (Hsi)

As much as 24:1 reduction ratio and are often run as primary or secondary crushers, occasionally tertiary. Normally are used with soft to mild stone. If utilized in hard abrasive materials, the wear cost and associated downtime is normally not acceptable. Output graduation of typical Hsi primary application will have around 40 percent finished size (-1”) material. Much more finished product than a jaw primary. Thusly, the circuit capacity is increased and the load on the crushing equipment downstream is minimized. Hsi crushers can produce and excess of fines in soft material, they can be dusty during operation. Hsi crushers are very popular in recycle applications as the can be run by themselves with no secondary crushers. They also offer far better iron liberation in concrete recycle work than do jaw crushers.

Hsi output gradation is controlled by rotor speed (rpm or tip speed in fpm). More speed results in a finer output. Apron or gap settings and the number of blow bars in the rotor also effect the output gradation, more bars equals a finer output. A smaller gap setting results in a finer output gradation as well. Rotor construction can be open or solid, cast or fabricated weldment. Blow bars are made from a variety of materials: manganese, low chrome, high chrome, and high chrome ceramic. The harder the bar, the longer the life, and the lower the wear cost will be. However, the harder the bar, the less shock load from tramp iron or excess top size it will tolerate. It is all about tradeoffs.

HSI

Vertical shaft impact crusher (Vsi)

Typically used as a second, third or fourth stage crusher. Canica offers a model that will accept a 12” top size which allows it to be used as a primary in some applications. The Vsi is easily the most misunderstood and misapplied crusher in the marketplace. For approximately every 15 to 20 cones that are sold, one Vsi is sold. They are hard to sell due in large part to poorly configured installations in the past.

Vsi nomenclature used to loosely refer to the diameters are numbers like 66, 74, 80, 90, and so forth. Today the numbers like 2050, 2500 and such don’t refer to anything as far as I can tell. Just a number selected by marketing that sounded racy.

The Vsi crushes material by throwing it against a hard steel anvil, which is where 95 percent of the crushing occurs. A Vsi (or Hsi) will give better product shape than a compression crusher, leaving a more cubical product like dice. Either impactor will also provide product beneficiation by crushing and deleterious in the deposit to dust, thereby leaving behind only the best, strongest stone in the stockpile. The Vsi will produce the best product shape of any of the crushers available today. It also has the best rate of production of the smaller sizes (- ½”) as it is the only crusher that does not close off the discharge side to make smaller product.

The challenge with the impactors is to control wear cost in hard abrasive material and to control excess fines production in soft stone. Both can be accomplished successfully more often than not. As with Hsi crushers, Vsi crushers move a lot of air and can be dust makers. They are a wonderful tool when properly applied. Gradation is controlled by table speed, number of shoes, shape of shoes, feed rate, and feed size.

VSI

Tricks of the Trade

Easy field tests to determine crusher and screen efficiencies

Tools required:
1) Cardboard box approximately 1’ x 1’ x 1’
2) Tape measure
3) Customer supplied screen cloth
4) Roll of tinfoil

Screen efficiency test
1) Fill box level full with oversize from screen deck in question
2) Dump contents of box onto like-sized screen cloth
3) If screen is 100 percent efficient and is removing all the smaller material then all of the stone will go back into the box. If only enough material goes back into the box to fill it ¾ the way, the screen is operating at 75 percent efficiency. Screens are the cash registers of the circuit. Having them operating at peak performance is critical. Screen speed, throw and angle can be adjusted on most screens. Consult the manufacturer’s manual for adjustment procedures. In general, screening large material requires a slower speed and higher throw. Fine screening requires more rpm and less throw.

Crusher efficiency test
1) Fill box level with discharge material from crusher
2) Dump contents onto like-sized screen cloth as the crusher discharges to
3) Work material around by hand and place the oversize back into the box. If the box is 1/3 full, for example, the crusher is operating at 65 percent efficiency. Modern high-speed, high-throw cones should be around 80 percent efficient when properly adjusted and choke fed. A good starting point for impactors would be around 70 percent when producing typically sized aggregate products. Most new cones have a gauge to tell the operator what the closed side setting is. However, older cones do not. Neither do the jaws. Here is where the tinfoil comes in at.

Closed side setting test
1) Make a few balls of tinfoil larger than the closed side setting of the crusher
2) With the crusher running empty, toss the tinfoil balls into the crushing chamber
3) Catch the flattened tinfoil upon crusher discharge and measure the thickness with the tape to determine the actual closed side setting.

HAVE FUN!